Dr. Crystal L. Hoyt
Professor of Leadership Studies and Psychology

As a social psychologist, Crystal L. Hoyt brings a psychological perspective to the study and teaching of leadership. Her research reflects a commitment to conducting both basic and applied investigations. Her primary research interests include women and minority leaders, stereotyping and discrimination, stigma, social cognitive theory, cognitive biases and leadership, and experimental methodology.

In her primary area of research, she is exploring the impact of stereotypes and discrimination on non-dominant, stigmatized leaders by focusing on such important variables as leadership efficacy, identification with the leadership role, attributions, and implicit theories of leadership. In a more applied fashion, she is examining factors, such as role models, that may or may not buffer these nontraditional leaders from the deleterious effects of stereotypes and discrimination.

Dr. Hoyt has received a number of grants, fellowships, and awards for both her teaching and research. She maintains an active experimental research program that involves mentoring many undergraduate students in both joint and independent research projects. She works closely with teams of student researchers and was honored in 2007 as a nominee for the Outstanding Mentor Award for the Undergraduate Research Committee. During the 2011-12 academic year, she is serving as WGSS program director.

Dr. Hoyt has co-authored several papers with her undergraduate students. Her research appears in journals such as Psychological Inquiry, Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Group Dynamics, Small Group Research and Leadership Quarterly. She is a co-editor of the book Leadership at the Crossroads: Leadership and Psychology.

University of Richmond Distinguished Educator Award, 2009.

Outstanding Faculty Award Finalist, State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2008, 2009.

American Psychological Association Division 49 Dissertation Prize Finalist, 2004.

Selected Publications
Forsyth, D. R., & Hoyt, C. L. (Eds.). (2010). For the greater good of all: Perspectives on individualism, society, and leadership. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hoyt, C. L., Goethals, G. R., & Forsyth, D. R. (Eds.) (2008). Leadership and psychology, Vol.1 in J. Ciulla (Series Ed.) Leadership at the crossroads. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Hoyt, C. L. & Price, T. (2015). Ethical decision making and leadership: Merging social role and self-construal perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics, 126, 531-539.
Hoyt, C .L., Burnette, J., &  Auster-Gussman, L. (2014). "Obesity is a disease": Examining the self-regulatory impact of this public-health message. Psychological Science, online.
Hoyt, C. L. (2013). Inspirational or self-deflating: The role of self-efficacy in elite role model effectiveness. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 290-298.
Simon, S., & Hoyt, C. L. (2013). Exploring the effect of media images on women’s leadership self-perceptions and aspirations. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 16, 232-245.

Hoyt, C. L., Burnette, J., & Innella, A. (2012). I can do that: The impact of implicit theories on leadership role model effectiveness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 257-268.

Hoyt, C. L. (2012). Gender bias in employment contexts: A closer examination of the role incongruity principle.  Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 86-96.

Hoyt, C. L., Simon, S., & Innella, A. (2011).  Taking a turn toward the masculine: The impact of mortality salience on implicit leadership theories. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 33, 374-381.

Hoyt, C. & Simon, S. (2011).  Female leader role models: Injurious or inspiring? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35, 143-157.

Hoyt, C. L. & Price, T., & Emrick, A. (2010). Leadership and the more-important-than-average effect: Overestimation of group goals and the justification of unethical behavior.  Leadership, 6(4), 391-407.

Hoyt, C.,  Johnson, S., Murphy, S., & Skinnell, K. (2010). The impact of blatant stereotype activation and group sex-composition on female leaders. Leadership Quarterly, 21, 716-732.

Hoyt, C. L. (2010). Women, men, and leadership: Exploring the gender gap at the top. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 484-498.

Burnette, J., Pollack, J. & Hoyt, C. (2010). Individual differences in implicit theories of leadership ability and self-efficacy: Predicting responses to stereotype threat. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3, 46-56.

Hoyt, C., & Blascovich, J. (2010). The role of self-efficacy and stereotype activation on cardiovascular, behavioral and self-report responses in the leadership domain.  Leadership Quarterly, 21, 89-103.

Hoyt, C. L., Simon, S., & Reid, L. (2009).  Choosing the best (wo)man for the job: The effects of mortality salience, sex, and gender stereotypes on leader evaluations.  Leadership Quarterly, 20, 233-246.

Simon, S., & Hoyt, C. (2008). Understanding the gender gap in support for a woman for president. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy (ASAP), 8, 157-181.

Hoyt, C. L., Aguilar, L., Kaiser, C., Blascovich, J., & Lee, K. (2007).  The self-protective and undermining effects of attributional ambiguity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 884-893.
Hoyt, C. L. & Blascovich, J. (2007). Leadership efficacy and women leaders’ responses to stereotype activation. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 10, 595-616.

Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara 2003
B.A., Claremont McKenna College 1997
Contact Information
(804) 287-6825
(804) 287-6062 (Fax)
Areas of Expertise
Women and Minority Leaders
Stereotypes and Discrimination
Perceptions of Leaders