Julian Hayter, an assistant professor and historian in the University of Richmond's Jepson School of Leadership Studies, writes about vote dilution and racial progress.


In 1971, Creighton Court resident Curtis Holt filed a monumental lawsuit against the city. His suit attacked an increasingly problematic, yet subtle form of institutionalized racism — the dilution of African-Americans’ growing voting power. Richmond had annexed 23 square miles of Chesterfield County a year earlier to head off the city’s growing black electorate and keep City Council predominantly white. Holt’s suit charged that blacks would have won a council majority in 1970 had Richmond not added 47,000 suburbanites, only 3 percent of whom were black.

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Associate Professor of Leadership Studies
Modern African American History
American Civil Rights Movement
African American Politics in Richmond, Virginia
American Political Development after 1945